以前常用的药物，期间，and after surgical procedures vary widely from patient to patient.This is because the specific drugs you receive are based on the type of surgery you are having,the anesthesia you will be undergoing,and any underlying health problems you have.
Before surgery,你会遇到你的麻醉师。在这次访问中，你会回顾你所有的医疗和牙科问题和过敏，as well as any medicines you are taking,包括草药补充剂，vitamins,还有像阿司匹林之类的非处方药。
On a side note,it's important to note that quitting smoking is ideal prior to surgery as it will lower your risk of lung complications after surgery,最值得注意的pneumonia你的麻醉师也会询问你或家人在麻醉前是否有过不良反应。
In terms of medications,手术前，可以使用抗生素来预防手术部位的感染。抗生素是一类用来对抗细菌的药物，and they are generally given orally (in pill form),or intravenously (through an IV).
抗生素的选择取决于手术的类型，其目的是防止手术部位感染。例如，接受冠状动脉搭桥手术的患者可能在切口（手术切口）前一小时内接受一种叫做ANCEF（头孢唑啉）的抗生素。Ancef is given through the vein (IV),这是一个第一代头孢菌素with a similar structure to penicillin.
- 局部麻醉：You are awake,将药物注射到皮肤中，使身体特定部位（例如，去除某人背部的痣）。
- 局部麻醉：You are awake,and a medication is injected into an area of nerves to numb the part of the body that is undergoing surgery (for example,an epidural during labor and childbirth).
- 全身麻醉：你睡着了，and a medication is given to stop pain from being felt anywhere in the body (for example,a surgery to remove a person's gallbladder or appendix).
大多数主要的外科手术需要全身麻醉。With general anesthesia,a medication called an anesthetic is used to induce unconsciousness and ensure you don't feel any pain.它可以通过静脉（静脉内）或通过呼吸面罩或管道给予。
An example of an anesthetic often used to induce anesthesia is丙泊酚.
有时，a breathing tube is placed into a person's windpipe by an anesthesiologist to make sure a person breathes properly during the surgery.此外，一种叫做 麻痹的may be used along with an anesthetic to deeply relax the muscles of a person's body during surgery.
Three examples of benzodiazepines sometimes used for sedation include:
- Ativan (lorazepam)
- Versed (midazolam)
一个人在手术室完成手术后，他将去一个康复室，在那里护士将密切监测生命体征（例如，心率，呼吸速率，和血压）and ensure adequate pain control as the person begins to fully wake up from the anesthesia.
如果过夜，一个人最终会搬到医院的病房休息，recovery,and pain management.Once in the hospital room,nurses and doctors will continue to monitor vitals as well as urine output and the rate of intravenous fluids.
Surgeons may also have specific instructions for the surgical incision site,比如如何提供适当的伤口护理，and order blood tests to check for signs of bleeding or infection.
In addition to these aftercare instructions,为了在身体康复的同时避免疼痛，会给患者服用止痛药等药物。
Analgesics,or pain medications,are used to control pain after surgery.They are available in a wide variety of forms and can be given in a number of ways like through an IV,pill form,菱形，栓剂，液体，即使作为一个补丁，where the medication is absorbed through the skin.
个人止痛药的强度差别很大，just as the dosage prescribed by a physician can be different from one patient to another.因此，the medication prescribed will depend greatly on the condition for which it's prescribed.
许多术后镇痛药含有类阿片，either purely or in combination with acetaminophen or NSAIDs.
- Ultram (tramadol)
- Tylenol (acetaminophen)
另一种非常重要的药物通常在手术后给予抗凝药物，which is a medication that slows the clotting of the blood.这一点很关键，因为手术的风险之一就是血栓，尤其地deep vein thrombosis，在腿上经常发生这种情况。
为了防止血块形成并引起并发症，如中风或肺栓塞（肺中的血块）。anticoagulants are given through an IV,an injection,或以药丸形式。
Examples of anticoagulants include:
- Acid reducers like the H-2 Blocker Pepcid (famotidine)
- Stool softeners and stimulant laxative like Peri-Colace (docusate sodium/sennosides)
When it comes to surgery,it is an undeniable fact that medications make procedures more tolerable,恢复更快，疼痛不那么剧烈。这并不意味着药物可以解决一切问题，因为药物只能起到改善康复的作用。
A patient with a willingness to get up and move after surgery is going to have a better chance of avoiding pneumonia than the patient who won't get out of bed. The patient who actively participates in rehabilitation will often be stronger and have a better return to normal activities than the one who has to be coaxed and bribed into doing their exercises.